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Old 12-31-2019, 10:21 AM   #19 (permalink)
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Default Re: GH and KH issues

The GH ions (Ca & Mg), KH ions (HCO3), and several other salt ions (Na, K, Cl, ...) are all important for osmoregulation. Some fish and inverts have very efficient uptake mechanisms and can pull what they need out of very dilute solutions (blackwater species), or get what they need from food. Other species adapted to mineral-rich waters have less efficient ion uptake and need higher concentrations in their water to get what they need, and to prevent excess water uptake (bloating).
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