Thanks everyone. I took off the regulator today to just poke around and it looks like it's native connection is for an industrial tank. There appears to be an adaptor for the paintball tank that simply unscrews.
A little more google sleuthing found these working pressures:
- 5 lb C02 Tank: 850 PSI (source)
- 20 oz C02 Paintball tank: 1800 psi (source)
So I'm expecting traditional regulators will be safe for both kinds of tanks. If I'm wrong, or if there is more to the story, I would appreciate anyone's thoughts.