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1. you definitely need to reduce your photoperiod. the other problem is that your plants are fairly slow growing, and if your tank is not heavily planted, you will have issues with algae. look at adding some fast growing plants to help take up the extra nutrients until your main plants have a chance to establish themselves.

2. i would reduce the feeding of your fish to once a day. that brown "slime" is fish poop. if you have to clean the filter out after 2-3 days, you're definitely over feeding.

3. the smell could be a buildup of fish waste, due to filter inefficiency and poor water flow.

4. IMO you're fine with the canopy you have now. just be consistant with cleaning the glass top of minerial buildup, which can reduce the amount of light getting to your plants.

5. flourite is no different from the gravel you're using. it's an inert clay based substrate that really doesn't have anything in it to help plant growth. you're probably thinking of ADA or eco-complete substrates. to keep from having to recycle your tank, swapping out gravel is not a bad idea. some people here have done that with good success. you just have to make sure the flourite you put into your tank is rinsed out very well. but i personally would just start over and redo it all at once.

6. what jaidexl said :D
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