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If you put 1 teaspoon full of a chemical in your tank, you put 1 teaspoon in your tank (that's easy).
If you put 1 teaspoon of a chemical into 500ml of water (this is about 100 teaspoons) then take one teaspoon of this solution and add it to your tank you've add:
1/100 x 1 teaspoon of the chemical. i.e. 0.01 teaspoons.
The remaining .99 teaspoons are still in the solution that you didn't use.
A wise person then saves that .99 teaspoons in that solution, and uses it to dose the tank, one teaspoon at a time, until the mixture is used up, 99 doses later. Or, you can just dump the bottle and start over each day.:p
 

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You can combine the macro fertilizers, KNO3 and KH2PO4, into one liquid mix, but you can't add an iron containing micro fertilizer mix into that same bottle. That causes the iron to be precipitated out as an insoluble substance that just settles to the bottom of the bottle.

To get to one drop per gallon as the dosage takes some calculations, assuming you don't want to just use the PPS Pro method, which is almost what you are describing. And, Flourish is a good trace mix to use instead of CSM+B, although I seem to recall being told there is no iron or too little iron in it.
 

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PMDD did not contain any significant amount of phosphates. When that method was devised it was believed that phosphates were the cause of algae growth. Only later was it determined that plants need phosphates, too.

Have you looked at the Pfertz liquid fertilizers - costing a lot less than Seachem's but more than dry chemicals? They are dosed by the squirt, as I recall.
 

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Solutions of inorganic salts, like KNO3 and KH2PO4 don't go bad and don't need refrigeration. You can keep the bottles of that mix under the tank without worrying about it deteriorating.

I really like the dosing bottles that look like:


You can dose the amount the little dose container at the top holds, and the bottle then lasts for about two weeks, assuming a daily dosing schedule. I don't have any problems dissolving enough KNO3 or any other of my ferts when I use this type bottle. http://www.greenleafaquariums.com/aquarium-fertilizers-supplements/dispenser-16oz.html is one source for these.
 
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