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Welcome to APC!

From the photo, the depth of soil and cap look fine. Can you give us a measurement? A thin soil layer is much less likely to cause trouble than one that is too thick. Go ahead and put in some more plants--nothing will help more.
 

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The depth of your soil and cap is perfect. You can probably increase your lighting schedule to 5 hours--3 hours siesta--5 hours.

The hornwort (front left corner) probably will not root into the substrate. It usually grows free-floating just under the surface. It is a good species for a new tank because it grows rapidly and quickly uses ammonia released by the soil. If you let it float it will also shade the tank from excess light (if that is a problem).

When you buy more plants, get a variety of easy strong-rooted species. It is difficult to predict which species will thrive in a given tank, so not all of them may grow. Java fern is an easy species, but don't bury the rhizomes in the substrate. It needs to be attached to a stone or driftwood.
 

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Much better! Walstad tanks depend on lots of healthy plants for stability and water quality.
 

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It is best to wait and see. Algae often comes and goes in new tanks. If it seems to be growing rapidly, decrease the photoperiod some. Getting the right balance of photoperiod and plant growth to suppress algae is often a process of trial and error.

About "cycling", Walstad tanks depend on healthy plants to remove ammonia, not bacteria (although they help). If there are enough plants and they are growing well, the tank is effectively "cycled". It is still a good idea to test your water periodically until the tank is established, but you can probably put snails in now. Shrimp are a little more sensitive, so let the snails settle in for a week or two first.
 
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